Do Battery Amp Hours Affect Power? | 2.0Ah Vs 5.0Ah Thursday Throwdown! Battery Reviews & Chargers

Do Battery Amp Hours Affect Power? | 2.0Ah Vs 5.0Ah Thursday Throwdown!


Battery Amp Hours Really Do Affect How Much Power Your Power Tool Delivers

In our Craftsman vs Ryobi hammer drill competition, several people pointed out that we were using different batteries: a 2.0Ah for the Craftsman and a 4.0Ah for the Ryobi. Because most people buy these tools as kits, we tested the kitted batteries. However, most tool enthusiasts know that battery amp hours affect power. But by how much?

First of all, for those of you that commented, thank you for the maturity you showed in the tone of your comments. It’s really refreshing to us as fellow members of the human race to be treated that way!

So for this Pro Tool Reviews Thursday Throwdown, we’re pulling in Makita’s 18V LXT 2.0Ah and 5.0Ah batteries to see just how much of an effect the bigger pack makes. We’ve also selected Makita’s XFD07 drill driver to help us with our testing.

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Voltage Vs Amp Hours 101

18V and 20V Max batteries use rows of 5 cells to reach 18 nominal volts. Each cell contributes 3.6 volts (4.0 volts Max) and the series connection between them brings it to a total of 18 volts (5 x 3.6).

Makita’s 2.0Ah battery uses just 1 row of 5 cells. The 5.0Ah pack uses 2 rows attached to each other with a parallel connection. That keeps the voltage at 18 and doubles the amp hours to 5.0.

Obviously, the 5.0Ah pack is more than double the amp hours of the 2.0Ah battery. That’s because they’re using different cells. They’re both 18650 sizes, but with different energy densities. So in addition to having double the cells, the 5.0Ah battery also has a higher energy density in each one.

In general, higher amp hours mean more runtime and higher voltage means more power.

You can read more about the relationship between voltage and amp hours here.

Makita 18V LXT 2.0Ah vs 5.0Ah Battery Comparison

2.0Ah Pack

  • Model: BL1820B
  • Lithium-Ion Cells: 5
  • Weight: 0.8 pounds
  • Charge Time: 25 minutes

5.0Ah Pack

  • Model: BL1850B
  • Lithium-Ion Cells: 10
  • Weight: 1.4 pounds
  • Charge Time: 45 minutes

Do Battery Amp Hours Affect Power?

High-Speed Test: 1-Inch High-Speed Auger Bit

We like using stacked OSB subfloor as a testing material because of its consistency. Drilling through 5 layers isn’t exactly a real-world application, but it evens out issues that come from hitting knots or other inconsistencies in lumber. We started testing how much battery amp hours affect power by drilling with 1-inch Bosch Daredevil High-Speed Auger Bits.

battery amp hours

With these super-smooth bits, the 5.0Ah battery had a slight advantage, 4.33 seconds to 4.48 seconds.

5.0Ah Power Boost: 3.35% Faster Drilling

High-Speed Test: 1-Inch Spade Bit

We stuck with the same material while switching to 1-inch Bosch Daredevil Spade Bits for the next test. These don’t drill as smoothly and they require a bit more power than the auger bits. We were still able to easily drill in high-speed, though.

battery amp hours

The small gap we saw between the two batteries in the first test widened with spade bits, 3.59 seconds to 4.00 seconds.

5.0Ah Power Boost: 10.25% Faster Drilling

Low-Speed Test: 1 1/2-Inch Self-Feed Bit

When we moved into low-speed testing, we also switched over to a pair of untreated 2 x 4s for our material. We started with a 1 1/2-inch Milwaukee Switchblade Self-Feed Bit.

As the amount of power required continued to increase with the new bit, the gap continued to widen between the two batteries’ drilling speeds. The 5.0Ah battery took 10.28 seconds while the 2.0Ah pack needed 12.08 seconds.

5.0Ah Power Boost: 14.90% Faster Drilling

Low-Speed Test: 2 9/16-Inch Self-Feed Bit

battery amp hours

The last test we ran was with a 2 9/16-inch Switchblade, calling on a much greater level of power from the drill. Here again, the 5.0Ah battery showed its ability to deliver higher power to finish the task, taking 11.26 seconds compared to the 2.0Ah’s 14.60 seconds.

5.0Ah Power Boost: 25.88% Faster Drilling

Battery Amp Hours Affect Power, But Why?

It stands to reason that if both battery packs deliver 18 volts, it shouldn’t affect the power, just the runtime. A closer look at the pack design offers some insight. Power is measured in watts and you can calculate it by multiplying volts and amps.

The drill really is asking for 18V from both batteries, so that remains constant. Where the number of cells comes into play is in the amps (current). Let’s say the Makita XFD07 needs 360 watts of power to drill the next hole. At 18V, the batteries each need to deliver 20 amps of current to make it happen (18V x 20A = 360W).

Each cell in the series has to contribute the full current since it isn’t additive between series connections. The 5 cells in the 2.0Ah pack each need to deliver 20 amps. In the 5Ah battery, there are two sets of cells, and the parallel connection between them does make the current additive. So each set only asks its cells to give 10 amps each.

It’s much easier for 10 cells each working half as hard to keep the power level up. The tougher the task, the harder it is for 5 cells to maintain the same power level as 10 cells.

It’s a similar story when you test runtime. In theory, a 4.0Ah battery should give you exactly twice the runtime of a 2.0Ah battery. However, you actually get a bit more than that. Check out the details in this test.

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The Bottom Line

Now that we know how significantly battery amp hours affects power, the application side is pretty straightforward. In lighter-duty tasks, a bigger battery doesn’t have a huge advantage, so save some weight and go with the smaller pack. As you move into medium and heavy-duty applications, the difference is substantial and a higher capacity battery is the way to go.

Do Battery Amp Hours Affect Power? | 2.0Ah Vs 5.0Ah Thursday Throwdown!

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Alex

As some others mentioned below the only issue in your test is that there are different cells in each pack. The real test should have the same cells.
Otherwise it is a good comparison and although in theory power is not affeced by the capacity, in reality, it definitely is. Larger capacity packs deliver the same power much easier than lower capacity packs (as your test concluded). Voltage will drop in low capacity packs when they are under load. The higher the load the lower the voltage.

Andrew

You made one error- you don’t divide the current required by each cell by the number of cells. So for the 360 watt example, each cell is outputting 20 amps with 5 cells. 10 amps with 10 cells. Also, a detail never mentioned but ultimately correct is that under load, the larger packs actually do produce more voltage *V*. They have lower draw per cell and thus lower voltage sag due to internal resistance of the cell. Since the resistance *R* of the tool remains fixed, Current *I* must increase with voltage due to Ohm’s Law which tells us that… Read more »

Robert Wood

Thank you this is a great test. I have confirmation bias in this, I feel the lower capacity batteries tapping out in impact drivers running structural bolts into place.

I am in a sales role to industrial customers and have gone through some Makita sessions. A claim specific to makita by not red or yellow is that their lower capacity batteries perform identical to the higher capacity batteries. you should take advantage of lighter tool weights as often as possible. Your testing shows otherwise and provides data for where I had rsw skepticism.

James

Very nice; being a statisticianby trade this raises several more questions. You never say, but I assume you started each test with fresh batteries? How much potential is there for variation among individual battery packs – both within and among brands? Perhaps the comparison should be done with 3-5 of each battery size and averaging the scores of each? Also, what about other endpoints like torque? You have good objective methods for testing torque and I’d be very interested to see if the results hold with those tests. Great post.

Big Richard

Right on. My only complaint would be that the packs are using different cells. The 2Ah is using 2000mAh cells and the 5Ah is using 2500mAh cells, possibly even from a different manufacturer. Different cells have different discharge rates. Would have loved to see a 2Ah vs a 4Ah, where they have the exact same cells, just different quantities. Otherwise, right on.